|Year : 2012 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 80-86
Knowledge, attitude and compliance with safety protective devices among commercial motorcyclists in Tudun-Wada Zaria, North-Western Nigeria
Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan, Sagir Muhammad Ahmad
Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
|Date of Web Publication||7-Mar-2013|
Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan
Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria
Source of Support: Community Medicine Department ABU Zaria, Commercial
Motorcyclists Transport Union Tudun-Wada and District Head of Tudun-Wada., Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: Globally, deaths and injuries from road crashes are a major and growing public health problem. More than 20 million people are severely injured or killed on the world's road each year and the burden falls most heavily on low income countries. Commercial motorcycling is gaining acceptance by all, as the transport system possesses several features which are adapted to the contemporary Nigerian society. However, many of the commercial motorcycle riders lack proper knowledge on road safety measures as such together with the passengers they carry are exposed to all the hazards of motorcycling including accidents.
Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude and compliance with safety protective devices among commercial motorcyclists in Tudun-Wada Zaria local Government area of Kaduna state North-western Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among 250 commercial motorcyclists who were randomly selected using multistage sampling technique in Tudun-Wada ward of Zaria local Government Area of Kaduna state. A pre-tested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used as the tool for data collection. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 19.0 and Epi-info 6.0.
Results: All the 250 respondents were males; with majority (72.4%) of them within the age range 20-29 years. Thirty percent of the respondents had no formal education and 28.8% of them are not registered with appropriate authorities. Majority of the respondents (75.6%) did not receive any formal training before commencement of the business. Also, 89.2% have poor knowledge on safety protective devices, while 95.2% have a poor attitude. In terms of compliance with safety protective devices, 86.4% of the respondents have poor compliance. None of the respondents had helmet worn during the survey period. Seventy six percent (76.4%) of the respondents have been involved in accident and 68.6% of which occurred 6 months preceding the study with lower limb most affected (accounting for 44.5%).
Conclusion: Commercial motorcycling is essentially done by males who have not received any formal training for the job; hence, they lack adequate basic knowledge on safety protective devices and as such their attitude and compliance with safety protective device is poor. The predominant type of injury they sustained was that of the lower limb, and a significant proportion of them sustained multiple injuries. There is a statistically significant relationship between the educational status of the respondents and their attitude towards use of safety protective devices. Therefore, ensuring formal training, vigorous enlightenment campaigns and enforcement on the use of safety protective devices by the relevant key authorities is necessary in order to reduce the high prevalence of accidents and injuries among commercial motorcycle riders.
Keywords: Attitude, commercial motorcyclists, compliance, knowledge, safety protective device
|How to cite this article:|
Sufiyan MB, Ahmad SM. Knowledge, attitude and compliance with safety protective devices among commercial motorcyclists in Tudun-Wada Zaria, North-Western Nigeria. Ann Nigerian Med 2012;6:80-6
|How to cite this URL:|
Sufiyan MB, Ahmad SM. Knowledge, attitude and compliance with safety protective devices among commercial motorcyclists in Tudun-Wada Zaria, North-Western Nigeria. Ann Nigerian Med [serial online] 2012 [cited 2015 Apr 28];6:80-6. Available from: http://www.anmjournal.com/text.asp?2012/6/2/80/108126
| Introduction|| |
Globally, deaths and injuries from road crashes are a major and growing public health problem. More than 20 million people are severely injured or killed on the world's road each year and the burden falls most heavily on low income countries.  This is due to the fact that pedestrians and motorcycles make up the largest proportion of the road traffic and are less protected from accidents per kilometres travelled, and therefore, are at a far greater risk than the drivers and passengers of cars and motor vehicles. 
The popularity of motorcycles grew way back in the 20 th century during the First World War, about 30 years after the first gasoline-engine motorcycle to appear publicly was invented.  Since then, the popularity of this mode of transportation has risen worldwide.  The European Union has more than 27 million powered two-wheelers in use, including mopeds, scooters and motorcycles. The number of motorcycles on the European road has doubled over the last decade.  In the United States, 5.4 million motorcycles were registered by 1985. 
In Nigeria, motorcycles have constituted a significant proportion of modal choice of commuters in many cities since the late 80's.  It was reported that in 1995, an estimated 45,000 motorcycles were in use for public transportation in Lagos metropolis alone.  In 2004 and 2005, 52% of all motor vehicle license plates were for motorcycles, and about 2% of the 2004 motorcycle license plates were produced for commercial purposes. 
Motorcycle transport possess several unique features which have led to their general acceptance as a source of employment among the urban poor and as an alternative transport solution to the problems of commuting in Nigerian cities.  This is due to the fact that other means of transport such as taxis and buses are relatively scarce compared to the number of population.  The motorcycle is easily affordable for the common man and very flexible as it can transport passengers through the narrow and bad roads to the far inaccessible parts of cities and villages.  Above all motorcycles are readily available that one can hardly wait too long for one to come around, even in the remotest villages they appear at given intervals. 
Unfortunately, the rise of commercial motorcycles has been accompanied by increased levels of high-risk behaviour and accidents on Nigerian roads; as a result they have come under heavy flak culminating in legislation regarding its use in some cities.  This might be attributed to the attitude and behaviour of some commercial motorcyclist which leaves much to be desired. Most of them have no formal training in the art of motorcycling. In some parts of Nigeria, commercial motorcyclists make their debut after a few hours of training session. 
Motorcycles have a higher fatality rate per unit of distance travelled when compared with automobiles.  The motorcyclist has an eight-fold risk of dying, a four-fold risk of injury and a two-fold risk of running over pedestrians as compared to automobile drivers. This is due mainly to the fact that the motorcycle itself provides virtually no protection in a crash. 
Motorcycle injuries are underreported from developing countries. Despite these an apparent increase in the motorcycle injuries has been noted.  Studies have shown that limbs and head injuries are the commonest causes of morbidity and mortality in motorcycle injuries, attributing the latter to the low use of crash helmets  Thus, to address the risk of motorcycling, before and after a fall, motorcyclists use of safety protective devices is considered. They have been shown to mitigate crash injury substantially. 
It is sad and worrisome that despite the high levels of accidents amongst commercial motorcyclists the use of safety protective devices in Nigeria is way on the low side. Therefore, this study is conducted with a view to determine the knowledge, attitude and compliance with safety protective devices amongst commercial motorcyclists in Tudun- Wada Zaria.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Zaria is one of the LGAs in Kaduna state located between the longitude 90° and 100° and latitude 70° and 80° North to East. The vegetation is guinea savannah and the hottest months are March and April, while the coldest are December and January. The rainy season varies from March to October and it is blessed with a lot of rivers. The LGA has thirteen political wards and a total population of 408, 198 (2006 population census). 
Tudun-Wada is one of the thirteen political wards in Zaria local Government area of Kaduna state. It is bounded by Tudun Jukun in the West, Jushi in the East, Gyallesu in the South and Magume in the North. The predominant tribes are the Hausas and Fulanis, however there are other tribes residing within this community. The people are mostly farmers with few traders and artisans. Tudun wada has a number of road networks which links the various settlements within it and the other twelve political wards. Therefore, commercial motorcycling is a thriving business especially among the teeming youth. There are eleven commercial motorcycles stations in Tudun-wada ward.
A cross sectional descriptive study design was employed to determine the knowledge, attitude and compliance with safety protective devices among commercial motorcyclists.
The study population consisted of both registered and unregistered commercial motorcyclists that operate mainly in Tudun-Wada and have spent at least 6 months in commercial motorcycling business. All persons that have not met these criteria were excluded from participating in the study.
A multistage sampling technique was adopted for the study.
Stage I: This involved the selection of ward by simple random technique using the balloting method. Tudun Wada ward was selected out of the listed thirteen political wards of Zaria local Government area.
Stage II: Thereafter, all the commercial motorcycles stations in Tudun wada ward were listed and using random sampling by balloting, four commercial motorcyclists' stations were selected.
Stage III: The four selected stations were visited and the commercial motorcycle transport union register in these stations served as the sampling frame from which the study population was selected randomly using random number table until the required sample size was obtained. The sample size was distributed to each of the selected stations proportionate to the size of commercial motorcyclists.
A pre-tested structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from 250 commercial motorcyclists who consented. The questionnaire was pretested in a different commercial motorcycle station located in another Local Government Area away from that of the study after translation and back translation to ensure standardization. The data collection took place from the 20 th to 23 rd of April 2011 and was carried out by the six trained research assistants. The questionnaire consisted of eight sections that sought information on: socio-demographic profile of the commercial motorcyclists, occupational history, knowledge on safety protective devices, attitude towards safety protective devices, compliance with safety protective devices, accident history, history of drug use, challenges on the use of safety protective devices and suggestions on how to encourage the use of safety protective devices among commercial motorcyclists.
Data collected was entered, validated, and analyzed using SPSS software version 19.0 and Epi-info 6.0. For the descriptive aspect of the analysis, frequency distributions were generated for all categorical variables. Means and standard deviations and other descriptive measures were determined for quantitative variables. Chi square test was applied for the comparison of proportions and for evaluating associations of categorical variables in contingency tables. Statistical significance was said to be achieved where P-value equal to or less than 0.05.
Before embarking on the study permission was sought from the Ahmadu Bello University Zaria ethical review committee. Permission was also obtained from Zaria LGA and District head of Tudun wada, after which a written informed consent was sought from the chairman of commercial motorcycle transport union (CMTU) Tudun Wada chapter. Equally, each respondent was briefed and adequately informed on the purpose of the study, after which their consent was sought. The respondents were all assured of their privacy and confidentiality on whatever information they would give.
Injuries could only have been reported by survivors and those who are not severely disabled by road traffic accidents. Thus this study may have under reported road traffic accidents and motorcycle injuries.
Rainy season is the period where accidents occur most, therefore, there is the possibility of recall bias among the respondents as the study was conducted in the intervening period between dry and rainy seasons.
| Results|| |
A total of 250 respondents were studied and majority of them (72.4%) were within the age range of 20-29 years. All the respondents interviewed were males with 87.6% of them reported Hausa as their ethnic group and 90.0% of them indicated Islam as their religion.
In terms of educational background, 34.8% of the respondents attended secondary school while 29.2% and 29.6% attended Quranic and primary schools. Over half (59.2%) of the respondents are not married, while 39.2% of them are married. Majority (75.6%) of the respondents did not receive any form of formal training before commencement of their business. About half (46.4%) of them earn between N600-N1000 per day as income. Detail of the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents is summarized in [Table 1]. [Figure 1] represents the number of hours spent by the respondents at work before retiring for the day.
|Table 1: Distribution of respondents by their Socio-demographic characteristics (n = 250) |
Click here to view
Knowledge on safety protective devices
A significant proportion of the respondents (88.0%) are aware of safety protective devices, however, majority of them (89.2%) have poor knowledge of what a safety protective device is. The only safety protective devices known by the respondents were; Crash helmet and visibility jacket constituting 92.7% and 22.7% respectively.
Attitude toward safety protective devices
In terms of willingness to wear safety protective devices, 84.4% of the respondents are willing to do so. Also, 75.6% of the respondents will advise someone they know to use safety protective device while riding motorcycles. However, overall attitude of the respondents towards safety protective device was poor (95.2% have poor attitude) as majority of them (87.6%) were not willing to buy and wear safety protective devices with their money and also 94.8% of the respondents mentioned that the use of safety protective devices among commercial motorcyclists should not be enforced by the relevant authorities.
Compliance with use of safety protective devices
Majority of the respondents owned crash helmet (30.4%), eye goggles (30.8%) and hand gloves (40.0%) as shown in [Table 2]. However, majority of them (77.2%) do not use the items while riding motorcycles. Therefore, in terms of their compliance score it was poor as 86.4% of the respondents had poor scores. Compliance with safety protective device was measured during the interview through one-off observation and asking respondents to show the type of safety protective device presently with them.
|Table 2: Type of safety protective devices owned by the respondents (n = 250) |
Click here to view
Involvement in accidents and type of injuries
Majority (57.6%) of the respondents worked for between 5-10 hours per day and another significant proportion (39.6%) of them worked for over eleven hours per day as depicted in [Figure 1].
Also, majority (76.4%) of the respondents were ever involved in accidents while riding motorcycles and most (32.5%) of this accidents occurred between 3-6months preceding the survey. The parts of the body that is most affected during the accidents were lower limbs accounting for 44.5% of injuries, this is closely followed by upper limbs (17.3%) and head (8.4%) as depicted in [Table 3] below. During work hours, 28.0% of the respondents take one form of drug or the other to enhance their performance, with alcohol alone accounting for 10.4%.
Statistical relationships (Determinants of knowledge, attitude and compliance to safety protective devices)
Findings from the study shows a significant statistical relationship between educational level of respondents and knowledge of safety protective device (x 2 =5.143; df = 1; P<0.05) as those with higher level of education were found to be more knowledgeable. Also, between duration of work and knowledge of safety protective device (x 2 =8.002; df = 2; P<0.05) as those who are older in the business were found to have better knowledge of safety protective device. Statistical relationship between registration with relevant authorities and compliance with safety protective device was found to be significant (x 2 =5.569; df = 1; P<0.05), those who have registered were complying more with safety protective device as depicted in [Table 4].
|Table 4: Respondents registration with relevant authorities by compliance with use of safety protective devices |
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
This study showed that all the respondents were males aged 15-49 years with peak age at 20-29 years, this is similar to the findings obtained by Oginni et al, in Ile-Ife and Alti-Muazu et al, in Zaria. , The numerous risks associated with motorcycling might explain why there is male preponderance, it is also not culturally acceptable in the study environment for females to engage in commercial motorcycling. This age group constitutes an important component of the labour force as they fall within the productive age group of 15-49 years.
Most (99.2%) of the commercial motorcyclists have one form of education or the other, majority (34.8%) of whom have attended secondary school. This is similar to the findings of Oginni et al, conducted in Ile Ife.  This implies that there is the possibility that the commercial motorcyclists are informed about the hazards of motorcycling, may have knowledge of safety protective devices and may be much easier to be educated on safety protective devices. Though this contradicts the finding of Alti-Muazu et al, conducted in Zaria city which showed that 60.5% had no formal education, but similar to the findings of Oginni et al. ,
Majority (73.6%) of the commercial motorcyclists have worked for 1-5yrs and are registered (71.2%) with an appropriate authority as evidenced by their association's registration register. Thus it is expected that they are more informed about the hazards of motorcycling than colleagues who have spent shorter duration in the occupation. They are also likely to be aware of safety protective devices. Since majority (71.2%) are registered with an appropriate authority it would be expected that the rate of crime and violation of road safety measures should be low, however, it is not the case in this study which shows otherwise.
Majority (75.6%) of the commercial motorcyclists have not received any form of training before commencement of riding and out of those who have had previous training; 21.3% had it for a period of less than 2 weeks. This goes to show that both the passengers and commercial motorcyclists subject themselves to a great risk of motorcycle injury during most episodes of riding. Significant proportions (39.6%) of the commercial motorcyclists work for over eleven hours per day continuously, meaning that they still work even when tired. As a result, some may have to resort to taking performance enhancing drugs or other substance to keep them going thus subjecting themselves and the passengers to more risks of motorcycle accident.
This study shows that majority (88.0%) of the commercial motorcyclists are aware of safety protective devices, which is similar to those of Oginni et al, Solagberu et al, and Alti-Muazu et al. It reveals 83.2% of respondents described safety protective devices as items worn for protection while 11.8% specifically referred to them as crash helmet. The study also showed that while majority of the commercial motorcyclists who are aware of safety protective devices know that they reduce the incidence of accidents (58.8%) and protect against head injury (92.0%). Their understanding of safety protective devices is only crash helmet, as 92.7% of them mentioned helmet as a protective device, while 22.0% mentioned visibility jacket and none of them mentioned any of the other types of safety protective devices. A similar finding by Oginni et al, conducted in Ile Ife showed that 77.6% of the commercial motorcyclists laid claim to knowledge of safety protective devices but only 20.0% were able to supply a crash helmet as an item.  In terms of knowledge therefore, majority (89.2%) of the commercial motorcyclists have a poor knowledge on safety protective devices.
Though majority (84.4%) of the respondents are willing to wear safety protective devices when given one, however, 87.6% of them are not willing to buy and wear one with their own money. 28.2% of those who are not willing believe it is because they offer no protection, while 48.7% complained they were disturbing to them. Also, 92.7% of the commercial motorcyclists disagreed to the enforcement of the use of these items by relevant authorities, as they don't have enough money to buy the required safety protective device. This contradicts the findings in the study by Oginni et al, which shows that 67.3% of the commercial motorcyclists welcome the enforcement of safety protective devices as it is for the interest of the rider.  From this study it is evident that most (95.2%) of the commercial motorcyclists have a poor attitude towards the use of safety protective devices.
In all, 30.4% of the commercial motorcyclists laid claim to the ownership of helmet but none had helmet on either their head or motorcycle at the time of the survey, as they claimed to have left them at their homes. This is similar to the finding of Alti-Muazu et al, in Zaria and Nzegwu in Benin City. , Majority (77.2%) of the respondents do not use safety protective devices while riding motorcycle, reasons given by many (60.0%) is that they do not have the money to buy it. While 37.8% claimed it was disturbing and covers their field of vision. In terms of scoring, majority (86.4%) of the respondents have a poor compliance score with use of safety protective devices.
Most (76.4%) of the commercial motorcyclists have been involved in one form of the accident or another while riding their motorcycles, with 68.6% occurring in the preceding 6 months. This indicates a high prevalence of accident similar to the finding of Alti-Muazu et al.  Out of those who were involved in an accident and sustained injuries, lower limbs were affected in the majority (44.5%) of cases. This is similar to the finding obtained by Solagberu et al, which shows that lower limbs were injured in 70.5% of the accidents.  In some accidents involving the respondents, more than one body part was affected thereby suggesting multiple injuries.
Significant proportions (38.0%) of the respondents take one drug substance or the other to enhance their performance while on work with alcohol top on the list. This contradicts the finding of Alti-Muazu et al, which showed a much higher prevalence of use of psychoactive substances (59.5%) with Indian hemp top on the list (25.8%).  This shows that both the riders and the passengers are subjected to greater risks when on motorcycle as a significant proportion of the commercial motorcyclists work under influence of psychoactive substances.
This study has also shown that there is a significant statistical relationship between Educational level of commercial motorcyclists and their knowledge of safety protective devices. This implies that educating the commercial motorcyclists will increase their knowledge on safety protective devices. There is also significant statistical relationship between the duration of employment of the commercial motorcyclists and their knowledge of safety protective devices. This implies that riders who have worked for longer duration are better informed on safety protective devices by virtue of their experience in the occupation. Also the study showed that there is significant statistical relationship between registration of the commercial motorcyclists with appropriate authorities and compliance with safety protective devices, thus implying that violation of safety measures is more likely among those not registered with relevant authorities. There is equally a significant statistical relationship between knowledge of safety protective devices among the commercial motorcyclists and their attitude towards the use of safety protective devices, and between the attitude of the commercial motorcyclists and their compliance with safety protective devices. Thus if knowledge on safety protective devices is increased, attitude and compliance towards safety protective devices will be improved.
| Conclusion|| |
It is evident from the findings of this study that although majority of the commercial motorcyclists defined safety protective devices as items worn for protection most of them do not know other safety protective devices aside helmet. Most of the respondents were willing to wear safety protective devices when provided with one, however, only a few of them supported its enforcement. In terms of accidents by the commercial motorcyclists, the commonly injured and affected parts were the lower limbs.
The study also shows a significant statistical relationship between educational levels of commercial motorcyclists and their knowledge of safety protective devices, and between the duration of work of the commercial motorcyclists and their knowledge of safety protective devices. Equally, there is significant statistical relationship between registration of commercial motorcyclists with appropriate authorities and compliance with safety protective devices.
Ensuring formal training and vigorous enlightenment campaigns on road traffic regulations should be instituted by the relevant stakeholders in order to reduce the high prevalence of accidents. While strict enforcement on using safety protective devices amongst the commercial motorcyclists by the relevant key authorities is necessary in order to reduce the high prevalence of and severity of injuries during accidents.
| References|| |
|1.||Zwi A. The public Health burden of injury in developing countries. Trop Dis Bull 1993;90:35-45. |
|2.||Smith GS, Barss P. Unintentional injuries in developing countries: The epidemiology of a neglected problem. Epidemiol Rev 1991;13:228-66. |
|3.||Hugh HH. Motorcycle accident cause factor and Identification of Countermeasures. Available from: http://www.ct.gov/dot/LIB/dot/document. [Last accessed on 2011 Mar 10]. |
|4.||Gbadamosi KT. The emergence of motorcycle in urban Transportation in Nigeria and its Implication on Traffic safety. Available from: http://www.faqs.org/periodicals. [Last accessed 2011 Feb 8]. |
|5.||NHTSA. Motorcycle Traffic Safety Fact sheet (DOT-HS-810-990) Available from: http:// www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people. [Last accessed 2011 Feb 6]. |
|6.||Olawole MO. Risk Perceptions Among Commercial Motorcycles in cities of South-Western Nigeria. Ife Psychologia 2000;1;16-9. |
|7.||Adeniji K. Urban Transport System in Nigeria. J West Afr Stud 1985;28;81-97. |
|8.||Solagberu BA, Ofoegbu CK, Nasir AA, Ogundipe OK, Adekanye AO, Abdur-Rahman LO. Motorcycle injuries in a developing country and the vulnerability of riders, passengers, and pedestrians" Inj Prev 2006;12:266-8. |
|9.||National Population Commission. National and state population and housing census: 2006 census priority Tables. Vol 1. Available from: http://www.population.gov.ng/index.php. [Last accessed on 2011 Feb 11]. |
|10.||Oginni FO, Ugboko VI, Adewole RA. Knowledge, attitude and practice of commercial motorcyclists to crash helmet. Am J Public Med 2005;2;137. |
|11.||Alti-Muazu M, Aliyu AA. Prevalence of Psychoactive substance Use among Commercial Motorcyclists and its Health and Social Consequences. Ann Afr Med 2008;7:67-71. |
|12.||Nzegwu MA. Patterns of morbidity and mortality amongst motorcycle riders and their passengers in Benin-city Nigeria: One-year review. Ann Afr Med 2008;7:82-5. |
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]