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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2016
Volume 10 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 47-70

Online since Monday, May 15, 2017

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EDITORIAL  

Mental health disorders in Nigeria: Ahighly neglected disease Highly accessed article p. 47
Dauda Eneyamire Suleiman
DOI:10.4103/0331-3131.206214  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Blood transfusion malaria: Aliterature review p. 49
Jamilu Abdullahi Faruk
DOI:10.4103/0331-3131.206210  
Asymptomatic malaria parasitemia has been documented in donor blood in West Africa. However, donated blood is not routinely screened for malaria parasites(MPs). Aliterature search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar engines, with the search terms “malaria” and “transfusion.” The search results were perused and studies relevant to the subject matter and that available in full text were retrieved. The retrieved studies were then grouped, based on the type of study, into systematic reviews, original articles, and case reports. Commentaries and letters to editors were excluded from the study. Finally, the studies were synthesized based on their themes; detection of MPs in blood donors, studies on MPs in blood recipients, prevention of transfusion-transmitted infections and malaria. In each category, studies from Nigeria and other malaria-endemic African countries were analyzed first, then Asian studies, followed by European and American studies. From the reviewed literature, the overall occurrence of blood transfusion malaria in transfusion recipients is low despite the fact that the potential risk of transmission is quite high as evidenced by the large proportion of blood donors harboring MPs. While several methods are being utilized to reduce the risk of transmission of transfusion malaria, their cost-effectiveness limits wide-range application. However, the riboflavin-ultraviolet light-based parasite reduction system has the potential to revolutionize the incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria. Therefore, malaria control and eradication interventions need to be strengthened to reduce the rate of infection in the potential blood donors.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus among antenatal attendees at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria p. 58
Benjamin Howe Nongo, Teddy Eyaofun Agida, Ufuoma Oghenebuk, Tahir Yunusa
DOI:10.4103/0331-3131.206213  
Background: Pregnant women infected with hepatitis B virus(HBV) can transmit the infection to their fetuses and newborns. Despite the above, screening of antenatal attendees is not yet done as a routine in many Nigerian Hospitals that offer antenatal services, inclusive of University of Abuja Teaching Hospital. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of HBV infection among antenatal attendees at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 200 consecutive antenatal attendees at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital. Rapid Test; Quick profile™; by Lumiquick Diagnostics: Santa Clara, California, USA, was used. All materials and specimen(plasma) were brought to room temperature. Results: The seroprevalence of HBV among antenatal attendee was 7.0%. Conclusion: The prevalence of HBV among antenatal attendees at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, is on the high side. It is hereby recommended that routine screening for hepatitis B surface antigen should be offered to all antenatal clinic attendees.
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Identification of a surrogate anthropometric measurement to birth weight in high-risk low birth weight newborns in a developing country p. 63
Bindu T Nair, Uma Raju, RN Mehrishi
DOI:10.4103/0331-3131.206212  
Background: The study of anthropometric measurements of newborns at birth allows rapid evaluation of the neonate who has suffered abnormal intrauterine growth. Thus, neonates at increased risk of postnatal complications can be followed-up and given greater care. Objective: The aim of our study was to identify a simple anthropometric measurement which can act as a surrogate to birth weight(BW) in a resource-poor country like India where the weight of majority of the newborns is not taken. Materials and Methods: We studied all consecutive singleton newborns with gestational age between 28weeks and 42weeks delivered at a large hospital in North India between January 2015 and December 2015. The total number of new-borns included in the study was 3000. All data were entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version15.0(SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: The mean BW of 3000 neonates was 2387g(standard deviation-560). The mean crown heel length, head circumference, chest circumference(CC), mid-upper arm circumference, mid-calf circumference, and mid-thigh circumference were 45.9±3.4cm, 32.6.5±2.3cm, 29.5±2.7cm, 10.1±1.3cm, 10.5±1.3, and 14.1±1.2cm, respectively. There was a positive correlation of BW to all such anthropometric measurements with the highest correlation coefficient for CC(r=0.73). The optimal cutoff points for CC and arm circumference to identify low BW(LBW) newborns were≥29.5cm and≥10.1cm, respectively. Conclusion: Measurement of CC is a simple, easy, cheap, and reliable method for identification of LBW. Hence, it can be easily made use of identifying high-risk newborns by our health-care workers in rural settings of developing countries like India.
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CASE REPORT Top

68Gallium-DOTANOC positron emission tomography/computed tomography scintigraphy for an unusual case of malignant pheochromocytoma: Findings and review of literature p. 68
Rajiv Yadav, Abhay Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0331-3131.206211  
Functional imaging is an important step in the diagnostic approach of patients with pheochromocytoma(PCC). Metaiodobenzylguanidine(MIBG) scintigraphy(single-photon emission computed tomography) is currently the most widely used functional imaging modality for evaluating a case of PCC. However, it has some limitations and poor sensitivity, especially in cases of malignant PCC(MPCC). Positron emission tomography(PET) scanning with gallium-68(68Ga)-DOTA-coupled somatostatin analogs is the newer upcoming modality with some superiority over MIBG scan. We present a case of MPCC with unusual invasion and metastasis positive on DOTANOC PET scan along with relevant review of literature.
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