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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 56-60

Prevalence of presbyopia in rural Abuja, Nigeria

1 Department of Ophthalmology, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
2 Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria
3 Department of Ophthalmology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Rilwan Chiroma Muhammad
Department of Ophthalmology, College of Health Sciences, University of Abuja, PMB 117, Gwagwalada, Abuja
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0331-3131.177953

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Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of presbyopia in rural Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted, using cluster random sampling to select 15 clusters of 40 participants each. The examination consisted of distance visual acuity measurement using the LogMAR chart at 4 m in ambient light, subjective distance refraction, and ophthalmoscopy. Near visual acuity was assessed at 40 cm with distance correction on for those who required it. Spherical plus lenses in increments of 0.5 diopter were added until the participant was able to read N8 or no further improvement occurred. A participant was defined as having presbyopia if he or she required an addition of at least 1.00 D in either eye to improve near vision to at least N8 or the participant was unable to read N8 at 40 cm with the distance correction in place if required. Results: The prevalence of presbyopia in all age groups was 53.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 48.9-57.9]. On multivariate analysis, female gender [odds ratio (OR): 2.37, 95% CI: 1.58-3.56] and increasing age (OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 1.65-7.10) were associated with presbyopia. Analysis of degree of presbyopia by gender showed that females had more severe presbyopia than males (mean 2.46D vs 2.17D, respectively; P = 0.001). Conclusion: This study revealed the high magnitude of presbyopia among communities where reading is uncommon in rural Nigeria. This study further emphasizes the need for provision of near vision spectacles not only to literate communities, but also to communities where reading is uncommon, as forms of near work other than reading, such as threading a needle, cutting fingernails, and sorting out grains, are commonly performed.

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