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   2015| July-December  | Volume 9 | Issue 2  
    Online since March 2, 2016

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Reviving hospital autopsy in Nigeria: An urgent call for action
Dauda Eneyamire Suleiman
July-December 2015, 9(2):39-40
  4,796 8,137 1
Prevalence of gestational thyroid disorders in Zaria, north-western Nigeria
Jibril Mohammed El-Bashir, Fayeofori Mpakabaori Abbiyesuku, Ibrahim Sambo Aliyu, Abdullahi Jibril Randawa, Rabiu Adamu, Sani Adamu, Shehu Abubakar Akuyam, Mohammed Manu, Hafsat Maiwada Suleiman, Rasheed Yusuf, Amina Mohammed
July-December 2015, 9(2):51-55
Background: Thyroid disorders are the second most common endocrine disorders found during pregnancy. Normal maternal thyroid function is critical for normal fetal development. Gestational thyroid dysfunctions complicate pregnancy with a significant increase in maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Objective: To assess the prevalence of thyroid disorders among pregnant women in Zaria. Materials and Methods: Study population consisted of 300 apparently healthy pregnant women and 100 apparently healthy age-matched nonpregnant controls. Participants were not on any drug that can affect thyroid function. Serum thyroid hormones [thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine (T 3 ), free thyroxine (T 4 ), and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody] were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed using Epi Info 3.5.3 and P-values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Ages (mean ± SD) were 25.41 ± 5.98 and 26.70 ± 5.83 years for pregnant women and controls, respectively. Parity mean ± SD were 2.32 ± 2.24 and 2.63 ± 2.75 for pregnant women and controls, respectively. The mean gestational age ± SD was 21.68 ± 10.38 weeks. Three percent (3%) were hypothyroid, while 2.3% were hyperthyroid. Nine percent (9%) were TPO antibody positive. Conclusion: Prevalence of thyroid disorders among pregnant women in Zaria was high therefore routine screening of all pregnant women for thyroid disorders during antenatal care visits may be of benefit.
  5,132 917 1
Application of dental stem cells in regenerative medicine
Suryakant C Deogade, Sonalika Ghate, Gunjan Dube, Sumathi K Nitin, Prashant Dube, Utkarsh Katare, Divya Katare, Shreyansh Damade
July-December 2015, 9(2):41-50
Recent discoveries in the field of stem cells place dental professionals at the forefront of helping their patients with potentially life-saving therapies derived from a patient's own stem cells obtained from deciduous or permanent teeth. Stem cells have opened doors of great hope in that these cells produced in large quantities through cell cultures could be injected into failing tissues and organs, which would replace these damaged cells with fresh ones. The emerging field of personalized medicine has focused on the ability of stem cells to grow and regenerate tissues using a patient's own stem cells for biologically compatible therapies and individually tailored treatments. This review discusses the information available on the different types of dental stem cells (DSCs) and their potential role in both dental and medical regenerative therapies.
  3,461 1,756 -
Prevalence of presbyopia in rural Abuja, Nigeria
Rilwan Chiroma Muhammad, Mustapha A Jamda, Lokhur Langnap
July-December 2015, 9(2):56-60
Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of presbyopia in rural Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted, using cluster random sampling to select 15 clusters of 40 participants each. The examination consisted of distance visual acuity measurement using the LogMAR chart at 4 m in ambient light, subjective distance refraction, and ophthalmoscopy. Near visual acuity was assessed at 40 cm with distance correction on for those who required it. Spherical plus lenses in increments of 0.5 diopter were added until the participant was able to read N8 or no further improvement occurred. A participant was defined as having presbyopia if he or she required an addition of at least 1.00 D in either eye to improve near vision to at least N8 or the participant was unable to read N8 at 40 cm with the distance correction in place if required. Results: The prevalence of presbyopia in all age groups was 53.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 48.9-57.9]. On multivariate analysis, female gender [odds ratio (OR): 2.37, 95% CI: 1.58-3.56] and increasing age (OR: 3.42, 95% CI: 1.65-7.10) were associated with presbyopia. Analysis of degree of presbyopia by gender showed that females had more severe presbyopia than males (mean 2.46D vs 2.17D, respectively; P = 0.001). Conclusion: This study revealed the high magnitude of presbyopia among communities where reading is uncommon in rural Nigeria. This study further emphasizes the need for provision of near vision spectacles not only to literate communities, but also to communities where reading is uncommon, as forms of near work other than reading, such as threading a needle, cutting fingernails, and sorting out grains, are commonly performed.
  4,566 310 1
Carcinoma in children at Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria
Bello Usman, Abdullahi Mohammed
July-December 2015, 9(2):61-65
Introduction: Carcinomas are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among adults but are relatively uncommon in children. However, a significant number of carcinomas do occur in children, with debilitating consequences. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all the carcinoma diagnoses in children aged 15 years and below during the 17 years' study period. Laboratory records from the Department of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria were extracted and reviewed. The findings were compared with similar studies elsewhere. Results: There were 41 children with confirmed cases of carcinoma, with 24 males and 17 females. The male-to-female ratio was 1.4:1. The peak age of incidence was 11-15 years. Patients aged less than 6 years constituted only 9.8% of cases. The commonest sites were the skin (29.3%), colon (22.0%), nasopharynx (14.6%), and major and minor salivary glands (14.6%). Conclusion: Carcinomas in children do occur, but are rare. These tumors are diverse and site-specific in their epidemiology, histogenesis, natural history, biologic behavior, morphology, and prognosis.
  3,621 214 -
Arthroscopically assisted treatment of a malunited tibia plateau fracture: A case report
Sunday Onimisi Salami, Opeyemi Idris Olusunmade
July-December 2015, 9(2):66-69
Arthroscopy is playing an increasing role in the management of tibia plateau fractures. We present its use in a Nigerian patient with malunited tibia plateau fracture. A 37-yearold male teacher with a 4-month-old left tibia plateau fracture presented with pain, instability, and deformity. He had arthroscopic evaluation followed by medial opening wedge corrective osteotomy. At 4 months follow-up, he was pain free and had a stable knee. Arthroscopy can be successfully used and is beneficial in the treatment of a malunited tibia plateau fracture. This case highlights the possible benefits of arthroscopy in case of this very complex injury. As the practice of arthroscopy and other minimally invasive surgeries becomes more widespread in Nigeria, we hope that more surgeons will incorporate this in their practice.
  3,572 211 -
Unilateral central retinal artery occlusion in alcoholic cardiomyopathy
Olukorede O Adenuga, Ojo Perpetua Odugbo, Mercy O Adejoh, Funmilayo J Oyediji, Folushade I Adeyemi
July-December 2015, 9(2):70-72
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an ocular emergency that may result in significant functional morbidity. Emboli of cardiac origin are an uncommon cause of retinal artery occlusion and a variety of cardiac disorders including dilated cardiomyopathies may be the source. We present a case of sudden unilateral vision loss in a 38-year-old man with alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). Ocular examination revealed symptoms of a right CRAO. His visual outcome was poor despite emergency measures taken at presentation. This case should increase the awareness of CRAO as a possible embolic complication in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.
  2,898 173 -