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   2016| January-June  | Volume 10 | Issue 1  
    Online since September 6, 2016

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Assessment of Vitamin A supplementation coverage and associated barriers in Sokoto State, Nigeria
Mohammed Dantani Adamu, Nasiru Muhammad
January-June 2016, 10(1):16-23
DOI:10.4103/0331-3131.189803  
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the Vitamin A supplement (VAS) and measles vaccination coverage in a district of Sokoto State, Nigeria. Objectives: To determine the VAS and measles coverage in the district among children aged 6 months to 59 months and factors associated with nonuptake/poor uptake from provider's perspective. Methodology: Mothers of children aged 6–59 months or their caretakers were interviewed for data on demography, socioeconomic status of the family, knowledge of Vitamin A, and receiving VASs and measles vaccination. Reasons for not receiving supplement and measles vaccine were sought from mothers and health care workers. Results: A total of 900 children were enrolled from 20 clusters, of which 61.6% of children had received at least 1 dose of VAS in the past 12 months. Only 41.6% of the children received the two annual recommended doses of VAS. The measles vaccine coverage was 42.1%. After multivariate regression analysis, fathers' education (none or Islamic), mother's education (none or Islamic), mothers' occupation (manual, homemaker), and the child being female gender were found to be predictors of poor uptake of VAS. Fathers' disapproval was the most common barrier to uptake of both measles vaccine (64.8%) and VAS (69%) from both mothers' and health care workers' perspective. Conclusion: This study showed poor coverage of both VAS and measles vaccination among children in Gwadabawa district and fathers' disapproval was the major reason for poor uptake
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Prevalence of malaria among HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Kogi State, North Central Nigeria
Frederick Olusegun Akinbo, Peter Joel Anate, David Bolaji Akinbo, Richard Omoregie, Stephen Okoosi, Abubakar Abdulsalami, Banabas Isah
January-June 2016, 10(1):11-15
DOI:10.4103/0331-3131.189802  
Background: Malaria and HIV diseases kill millions of people yearly, and they are the scourges of developing nations. This study was conducted to determine the coinfections of malaria and HIV, and the effect of demographic characters on HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Kogi State, Nigeria. Methods: Five hundred and eleven participants consisting of 411 (51 males and 360 females) HIV-infected patients on HAART and 100 (8 males and 92 females) apparently healthy HIV-noninfected individuals who served as controls were enrolled in this study. Blood sample was collected from each participant and malaria was diagnosed using the standard procedure. Results: An overall prevalence of 7.8% and 2% of malarial infection was observed in HIV-infected patients on HAART and non-HIV participants, respectively. The prevalence of malaria among HIV patients on HAART differed signifi cantly (P < 0.0001) among the local government councils, with patients from Ogori-Magongo having the least prevalence (0.0%). Age, gender, type of occupation, clinical manifestations, anemia, and CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/μL affected the prevalence of malarial infection (P < 0.05) in this study. Conclusion: Diagnosis of malaria among HIV patients on HAART is advocated.
  2 4,650 359
Prevalence and determinants of contraceptive use in rural Northeastern Nigeria: Results of a mixed qualitative and quantitative assessment
Musa Abubakar Kana, Yetunde O Tagurum, Zuwaira I Hassan, Tolulope O Afolanranmi, Gabriel Ofikwu Ogbeyi, Joshua Abubakar Difa, Peter Amede, Olubunmi O Chirdan
January-June 2016, 10(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/0331-3131.189801  
Background: Family planning is an effective intervention for promoting maternal health, but its acceptability and utilization are impeded by many factors in Northern Nigeria. This study aims to assess the prevalence and identify determinants of contraceptive use in a rural setting. Methods: A mixed method cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in Gumau, a rural community of Bauchi State, Northeastern Nigeria. Quantitative data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire while the qualitative data were collected using focus group discussions with selected women and their husbands, and key informant interviews with family planning service providers. Results: Family planning commodities were regularly available in the community and the prevalence of current contraceptive use was 26%. The main determinants included age <35 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.0; confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–8.9; P = 0.028), Christian religious affiliation (OR = 2.4; CI = 1.1–4.9; P= 0.025), and spousal support (OR = 55.1; CI = 16.0–189.8; P = 0.000). The qualitative data also reinforced the crucial role of sociocultural factors, especially men in decision-making and contraceptive uptake. Conclusion: Sociodemographic factors, especially spousal support is a key determinant of contraceptive use that should be considered in the design of acceptable family planning intervention.
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Factors associated with caregivers' knowledge about childhood asthma in Ilesa, Nigeria
Bankole Peter Kuti, Kehinde Oluyori Omole
January-June 2016, 10(1):30-36
DOI:10.4103/0331-3131.189806  
Background: Children with asthma depend on their parents/caregivers for their asthma control. The level of knowledge of these caregivers has been found to affect the control of the disease. This study aims to assess the knowledge of parents/caregivers of children with asthma and to determine the factors associated with these levels of knowledge. Methods: Consecutive children aged 2–14 years with physician-diagnosed asthma and their caregivers who attend the pediatric chest clinic of the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, Nigeria, during a 6 months study period were recruited. Parental/caregiver's level of knowledge about childhood asthma was assessed using a 25-item Asthma Knowledge Questionnaire (AKQ) and knowledge levels were categorized into good and poor knowledge. Relevant history and examination findings were appropriately compared between those with good and poor knowledge. Results: Fifty-two caregiver–child pairs were participated in the study. The children age ranged from 2 to 13 years with mean (standard deviation [SD]) of 6.6 (3.6) years and male:female ratio of 1.7:1. Majority (88.5%) of the children had mild intermittent asthma. Mother is the caregiver in 48 (92.3%) of participants. The mean (SD) score from the AKQ was 11.2 (3.7) which ranged from 1 to 18. The scores were significantly higher in questions related to triggers of exacerbation and quality of life of asthmatics than those related to nature, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease (P < 0.05). Twenty (38.5%) caregivers had a good score (AKQ >12) and good knowledge correlated positively with duration of diagnosis of asthma (P < 0.05). Good childhood asthma knowledge was observed among caregivers with family history of asthma, previous asthma-related hospitalization in the child, and in those with postsecondary education significantly had better knowledge of childhood asthma. Conclusion: Caregivers' knowledge about childhood asthma in Ilesa is poor particularly as related to nature, diagnosis, and treatment. However, the presence of family history of asthma, previous asthma-related hospitalization, and high educational status in caregivers of children with asthma are significantly associated with increased knowledge about the condition. Attention should be placed on more comprehensive parental and child asthma education for successful asthma management.
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Clinical profile of acute flaccid paralysis: A study from a tertiary care centre in Kashmir, India
Naveed Mohsin, Ravouf Asimi
January-June 2016, 10(1):24-29
DOI:10.4103/0331-3131.189805  
Background and Aims: As a part of Global Polio Eradication Programme by World Health Organisation, surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) was an important public health activity in many countries. With nearing the eradication of poliomyelitis, other causes of AFP are gaining importance in both children and adults. This study was designed to know the clinical characteristics, and differential diagnosis of causes of AFP, including distribution by age, gender, and time. This was a prospective observational study. Methods: AFP cases were diagnosed on the basis of history and physical examination. The underlying etiology was ascertained by appropriate laboratory investigations such as arterial blood gas analysis, urinary pH, electrolytes, thyroid profile, electrophysiological studies, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and imaging. Results: Between July 2010 and September 2012, 106 cases of AFP were enrolled. Out of 106 patients, 58 (54.7%) were suffering from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), 15 (14.2%) from hypokalemic paralysis, 8 (7.5%) from myasthenia gravis, 8 (7.5%) from thiamine deficiency, 5 (4.7%) from transverse myelitis, and 2 (1.9%) from cord compression. Other diagnoses include; acute motor axonal neuropathy 3 (2.8%), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis 2 (1.9%), meningoencephalitis 2 (1.9%), diabetic polyneuropathy 2 (1.9%), and chemotherapy-induced neuropathy 1 (0.9%). Most cases, 42/106 (39.6%) were admitted during the spring season. Conclusion: GBS was the most common cause of AFP in all age groups. Most of the AFP cases occurred during spring season. No case of poliomyelitis was found.
  1 4,584 304
CASE REPORT
Vulvar varicosities in pregnancy
Matthew Chum Taingson, Joel A Adze, Stephen B Bature, Durosinlorun M Amina, Mohammed Caleb, Abubakar Amina
January-June 2016, 10(1):44-45
DOI:10.4103/0331-3131.189804  
A case of vulval varicosities occurring during pregnancy that was managed conservatively and regressed completely postpartum is presented.
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EDITORIAL
The persistent problem of diagnostic errors
Dauda Eneyamire Suleiman
January-June 2016, 10(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0331-3131.189800  
  - 3,302 516
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Initial outcome following invasive cardiac electrophysiologic studies and radiofrequency ablation of ventricular tachycardia
Kelechukwu Uwanuruochi, Sabari Saravanan, Anita Ganasekar, Benjamin Solomon, Ravikumar Murugesan, Ruchit A Shah, Jaishankar Krishnamoorthy, Ulhas Pandurangi
January-June 2016, 10(1):37-43
DOI:10.4103/0331-3131.189799  
Background: Cardiac electrophysiologic study (EPS) and radiofrequency (RF) ablation have become an established mode of treatment for patients with refractory arrhythmias. These procedures are carried out regularly at the cardiac catheterization laboratory of Madras Medical Mission India. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate our experience with cardiac EPSs and Radiofrequency ablations (RFAs) of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Methods: This was a retrospective study carried out in the Cardiac Electrophysiology Department of the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Madras Medical Mission, India. All cases diagnosed to have VT following cardiac EPS between January 2010 and April 2014 were selected for the study. The records which were obtained from the Cardiac Electrophysiology Clinical Research Office of Madras Medical Mission were reviewed. One hundred and thirteen cases were chosen for the analysis, using SPSS statistical software version 15. Results: There were 113 patients, comprised 78 males and 35 females. The mean age was 48.79 years. Common etiologic classes of VT were idiopathic outflow tract VT - 50.4%, ischemic heart disease - 20.4%, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ACMP) - 11.5%, and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) - 12.4%. Ablation was attempted in 92 (82.1%). The initial outcome was highest in IDCM, 87.5%, and least in ACMP, 50.0%. Conclusions: Treatment of VT by RFA is comparatively effective and safe.
  - 2,460 256
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